The Development History Of Chinese Elevator
In 1854, at the World Expo in Crystal Palace, New York, Eliza Graves Otis showed his invention for the first time – the first safety lift in history. Since then, lifts have been widely used around the world. The elevator company, named after Otis, also began its brilliant journey. After 150 years, it has grown into a leading elevator company in the world, Asia and China.
Life is continuing, technology is developing, and elevators are improving. The material of the elevator is from black and white to colorful , and the style is from straight to oblique. In the control methods, it is innovated step by step - handle switch operation, button control, signal control, collection control, man-machine dialogue, etc. Parallel control and intelligent group control have appeared; double-decker elevators have the advantages of saving hoistway space and improving transportation capacity. The variable-speed moving walkway escalator saves more time for the passengers ; By the fan-shaped, triangular, semi-angular and round shapes of different shapes cabin , passengers will have a no-limit and free vision .
With the historical sea changes , the eternal constant is the commitment of the elevator to improve the quality of life of modern people.
According to statistics, China is using more than 346,000 elevators, and it is growing at an annual rate of about 50,000 to 60,000 units. Elevators have been in China for more than 100 years, and the rapid growth of elevators in China has occurred after the reform and opening up. At present, the level of elevator technology in China has been synchronized with the world.
In the passed more than 100 years , the development of China’s elevator industry has experienced the following stages:
1, sales, installation, and maintenance of imported elevators (1900-1949). At this stage, the number of elevators in China is only about 1,100;
2, independent Hard development and production stage (1950-1979), at this stage China has produced and installed about 10,000 elevators;
3, established a three-funded enterprise, the stage of rapid development of the industry (since 1980), this stage of China’s total production Installed about 400,000 elevators.
At present, China has become the world’s largest new elevator market and the largest elevator producer.
In 2002, the annual manufacture capacity of elevators in China’s elevator industry exceeded 60,000 units for the first time. The third wave of development in China’s elevator industry since the reform and opening up is on the rise. It first appeared in 1986-1988, and it second appeared in 1995-1997.
In 1900, Otis Elevator Company of the United States obtained the first elevator contract in China through agent Tullock & Co. – providing two elevators to Shanghai. Since then, the history of the world elevator has opened a page of China
In 1907, Otis installed two elevators at the Huizhong Hotel in Shanghai (now Peace Hotel Hotel, South Building, English name Peace Palace Hotel). These two elevators are considered to be the earliest elevators used in China.
In 1908, American Trading Co. became an agent of Otis in Shanghai and Tianjin.
In 1908, the Licha Hotel (English name Astor House, later changed to Pujiang Hotel) located in Huangpu Road, Shanghai, installed 3 elevators. In 1910, the Shanghai General Assembly Building (now Dongfeng Hotel) installed a triangular wooden car elevator made by Siemens AG.
In 1915, the Beijing Hotel in the south exit of Wangfujing in Beijing installed three Otis company single-speed elevators, including 2 passenger elevators, 7 floors and 7 stations; 1 dumbwaiter, 8 floors and 8 stations (including underground 1). In 1921, the Beijing Union Medical College Hospital installed an Otis elevator.
In 1921, the International Tobacco Trust Group Yingmei Tobacco Company established the Tianjin Pharmaceutical Factory (renamed Tianjin Cigarette Factory in 1953) established in Tianjin. The Otis company’s six handle-operated freight elevators were installed in the plant.
In 1924, the Astor Hotel in Tianjin (English name Astor Hotel) installed a passenger elevator operated by Otis Elevator Company in the reconstruction and expansion project. Its rated load is 630kg, AC 220V power supply, speed 1.00m / s, 5 floors 5 stations, wooden car, manual fence door.
In 1927, the Industrial and Mechanical Industry Unit of the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Works began to be responsible for the registration, review and licensing of elevators in the city. In 1947, the elevator maintenance engineer system was proposed and implemented. In February 1948, regulations were formulated to strengthen the regular inspection of elevators, which reflected the importance attached by local governments in the early days to the safety management of elevators.
In 1931, Schindler in Switzerland set up an agency in Shanghai’s Jardine Engineering Corp. to carry out elevator sales, installation and maintenance operations in China.
In 1931, Hua Cailin, a former foreman of Shen Changyang, which was founded by the Americans, opened the Huayingji Elevator Hydroelectric Iron Factory in No. 9 Lane 648, ChangdAs of 2002, China International Elevator Exhibition was held in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2002. The exhibition exchanged elevator technology and market information from all over the world and promoted the development of the elevator industry.
In 1935, the 9-storey Daxin Company at the intersection of Nanjing Road and Tibet Road in Shanghai (the four major companies on Shanghai Nanjing Road at that time – one of Xianshi, Yong’an, Xinxin, Daxin Company, now the first department store in Shanghai) Two 2 O&M single escalators were installed at Otis. The two escalators are installed in the paved shopping mall to the 2nd and 2nd to 3rd floors, facing the Nanjing Road Gate. These two escalators are considered to be the earliest escalators used in China.
Till 1949, about 1,100 imported elevators were installed in various buildings in Shanghai, of which more than 500 were produced in the United States; followed by more than 100 in Switzerland, as well as the United Kingdom, Japan, Italy, France, Germany, Produced in countries such as Denmark. One of the two-speed AC two-speed elevators produced in Denmark has a rated load of 8 tons and is the elevator with the maximum rated load before the liberation of Shanghai.
In the winter of 1951, the Party Central Committee proposed to install a self-made elevator in China’s Tiananmen Gate in Beijing. The task was handed over to Tianjin (private) Qingsheng Motor Factory. After more than four months, the first elevator designed and manufactured by our engineers and technicians was born. The elevator has a load capacity of 1 000 kg and a speed of 0.70 m/s. It is AC single speed and manual control.
From December 1952 to September 1953, Shanghai Hualuji Elevator Hydropower Iron Factory undertook the freight elevators and passengers ordered by the central engineering company, the Beijing Soviet Red Cross Building, the Beijing related ministry office building, and the Anhui paper mill. Tigami 21 units. In 1953, the plant built an automatic leveling elevator driven by a two-speed induction motor.
On 28th December, 1952, the Shanghai Real Estate Company Electrical Repair Center was established. The personnel are mainly composed of Otis company and Swiss Schindler company engaged in elevator business in Shanghai and some domestic private manufacturers, mainly engaged in the installation, maintenance and maintenance of elevators, plumbing, motors and other housing equipment.
In 1952, Tianjin (private) merged from Qingsheng Motor Factory into Tianjin Communication Equipment Factory (renamed Tianjin Lifting Equipment Factory in 1955), and set up an elevator workshop with an annual output of 70 elevators. In 1956, six small factories including Tianjin Crane Equipment Factory, Limin Iron Works and Xinghuo Paint Factory were merged to form Tianjin Elevator Factory.
In 1952, Shanghai Jiaotong University set up a major in lifting and transportation machinery manufacturing, and also opened an elevator course.
In 1954, Shanghai Jiaotong University began to recruit graduate students in the field of lifting and transportation machinery manufacturing. Elevator technology is one of the research directions.
On 15th October, 1954, the Shanghai Huayingji Elevator Hydropower Iron Factory, which was insolvent due to insolvency, was taken over by the Shanghai Heavy Industry Administration. The factory name was designated as the local state-owned Shanghai elevator manufacturing plant. In September 1955, Zhenye Elevator Hydropower Engineering Bank merged into the plant and was named “Public and Private Joint Shanghai Elevator Factory”. At the end of 1956, the plant trial-produced an automatic two-speed signal control elevator with automatic leveling and automatic door opening. In October 1957, eight automatic signal-controlled elevators produced by the public-private joint venture Shanghai Elevator Factory were successfully installed on the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge.
In 1958, the first large lifting height (170m) elevator of Tianjin Elevator Factory was installed in Xinjiang Ili River Hydropower Station.
In September 1959, the public-private joint venture Shanghai Elevator Factory installed 81 elevators and 4 escalators for major projects such as the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Among them, the four AC2-59 double escalators are the first batch of escalators designed and manufactured by China. They were jointly developed by Shanghai Public Elevator and Shanghai Jiaotong University and installed at the Beijing Railway Station.
In May 1960, the public-private joint venture Shanghai Elevator Factory successfully produced a DC elevator powered by a signal-controlled DC generator set. In 1962, the plant’s cargo elevators supported Guinea and Vietnam. In 1963, four marine elevators were installed on the 27,000-ton cargo ship of the Soviet “Ilic”, thus filling the gap in the manufacture of marine elevators in China. In December 1965, the factory produced the AC two-speed elevator for the first outdoor TV tower in China, with a height of 98m, installed on the Guangzhou Yuexiu Mountain TV Tower.
In 1967, Shanghai Elevator Factory built a DC rapid group-controlled elevator for the Lisboa Hotel in Macau, with a load capacity of 1 000 kg, a speed of 1.70 m/s, and four group control. This is the first group-controlled elevator produced by Shanghai Elevator Factory.
In 1971, the Shanghai Elevator Factory successfully produced the first fully transparent unsupported escalator in China, installed in the Beijing Subway. In October 1972, the escalator of the Shanghai Elevator Factory was upgraded to a height of more than 60 m. The escalator was successfully installed and installed in the Jinricheng Square subway in Pyongyang, North Korea. This is the earliest production of high lift height escalators in China.
In 1974, the mechanical industry standard JB816-74 “Elevator Technical Conditions” was released. This is the early technical standard for the elevator industry in China.
In December 1976, Tianjin Elevator Factory built a DC gearless high-speed elevator with a height of 102m and installed in Guangzhou Baiyun Hotel. In December 1979, Tianjin Elevator Factory produced the first AC-controlled elevator with centralized control and control speed of 1.75m/s and lifting height of 40m. It was installed in Tianjin Jindong Hotel.
In 1976, the Shanghai Elevator Factory successfully produced a two-person moving walkway with a total length of 100m and a speed of 40.00m/min, installed at Beijing Capital International Airport.
In 1979, during the 30 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, about 10,000 elevators were installed and installed nationwide. These elevators are mainly DC elevators and AC two-speed elevators. There are about 10 domestic elevator manufacturers.
On 4th July, 1980, China Construction Machinery Corporation, Swiss Schindler Co., Ltd. and Hong Kong Jardine Schindler (Far East) Co., Ltd. jointly established China Xunda Elevator Co., Ltd. This is the first joint venture in the machinery industry in China since the reform and opening up. The joint venture includes Shanghai Elevator Factory and Beijing Elevator Factory. China’s elevator industry has set off a wave of foreign investment.
In April 1982, Tianjin Elevator Factory, Tianjin DC Motor Factory and Tianjin Worm Gear Reducer Factory established Tianjin Elevator Company. On September 30th, the company’s elevator test tower was completed, with a tower height of 114.7m, including five test wells. This is the earliest elevator test tower established in China.
In 1983, Shanghai Housing Equipment Factory built the first low-pressure control moisture-proof and anti-corrosion elevator for the 10m platform in Shanghai Swimming Hall. In the same year, the first domestic explosion-proof elevator for overhauling dry gas cabinets was built for Liaoning Beitai Iron and Steel Plant.
In 1983, the Ministry of Construction confirmed that the Institute of Building Mechanization of the China Academy of Building Research is the technical research institute for elevators, escalators and moving walkways in China.
In June 1984, the inaugural meeting of the Construction Machinery Manufacturing Association Elevator Branch of China Construction Mechanization Association was held in Xi’an, and the elevator branch was a third-level association. On January 1, 1986, the name was changed to “China Construction Mechanization Association Elevator Association”, and the Elevator Association was promoted to the Second Association.
On 1st December, 1984, Tianjin Otis Elevator Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Tianjin Elevator Company, China International Trust and Investment Corporation and Otis Elevator Company of the United States, officially opened.
In August 1985, China Schindler Shanghai Elevator Factory successfully produced two parallel 2.50m/s high-speed elevators and installed them at the Baozhaolong Library of Shanghai Jiaotong University. Beijing Elevator Factory produced China’s first microcomputer-controlled AC speed control elevator with a load capacity of 1 000 kg and a speed of 1.60 m/s, installed in the Beijing Library.
In 1985, China officially joined the International Organization for Standardization’s Elevator, Escalator and Moving Sidewalk Technical Committee (ISO/TC178) and became a member of the P. The National Bureau of Standards has determined that the Institute of Construction Mechanization of the China Academy of Building Research is a domestic centralized management unit.
In January 1987, Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Co., Ltd., a four-party joint venture between Shanghai Electromechanical Industrial Co., Ltd., China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation, Japan’s Mitsubishi Electric Corporation and Hong Kong Lingdian Engineering Co., Ltd., opened the ribbon-cutting ceremony.
On 11st _ 14th December , 1987, the first batch of elevator production and elevator installation license review conferences were held in Guangzhou. After this review, a total of 93 elevator production licenses of 38 elevator manufacturers passed the assessment. A total of 80 elevator installation licenses for 38 elevator units passed the assessment. A total of 49 elevator installations were installed in 28 construction and installation companies. The license passed the review.
In 1987, the national standard GB 7588-87 “Safety Code for Elevator Manufacturing and Installation” was released. This standard is equivalent to the European standard EN81-1 “Safety Code for the Construction and Installation of Elevators” (revised December 1985). This standard is of great significance for ensuring the quality of the manufacture and installation of elevators.
In December 1988, Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Co., Ltd. introduced the first transformer variable frequency control elevator in China with a load capacity of 700kg and a speed of 1.75m/s. It was installed at Jing’an Hotel in Shanghai.
In February 1989, the National Elevator Quality Supervision and Inspection Center was formally established. After several years of development, the center uses advanced methods for type testing of elevators and issues certificates to ensure the safety of elevators used in China. In August 1995, the center built an elevator test tower. The tower is 87.5m high and has four test wells.
On 16th January, 1990, a press conference of the first domestically produced elevator quality user evaluation results organized by the China Quality Management Association User Committee and other units was held in Beijing. The meeting released a list of companies with better product quality and better service quality. The evaluation scope is domestic elevators installed and used in 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions since 1986, and 1,150 users participated in the evaluation.
On 25th February, 1990, the China Association of Elevator magazine, the magazine of the Elevator Association, was officially published and publicly released at home and abroad. “China Elevator” has become the only official publication in China that specializes in elevator technology and market. State Councilor Mr. Gu Mu inscribed the title. Since its inception, the editorial department of China Elevator has actively started to establish exchanges and cooperation with elevator organizations and elevator magazines at home and abroad.
In July 1990, the “English-Chinese Han Ying Elevator Professional Dictionary” written by Yu Chuangjie, a senior engineer of Tianjin Otis Elevator Co., Ltd., was published by Tianjin People’s Publishing House. The dictionary collects more than 2,700 commonly used words and terms in the elevator industry.
In November 1990, the Chinese elevator delegation visited the Hong Kong Elevator Industry Association. The delegation learned about the overview and technical level of the elevator industry in Hong Kong. In February 1997, the China Elevator Association delegation visited Taiwan Province and held three technical reports and seminars in Taipei, Taichung and Tainan. The exchanges between our counterparts across the Taiwan Straits have promoted the development of the elevator industry and deepened the deep friendship between compatriots. In May 1993, the Chinese Elevator Association delegation conducted an inspection of the production and management of elevators in Japan.
In July 1992, the 3rd General Assembly of China Elevator Association was held in Suzhou City. This is the inaugural meeting of the China Elevator Association as a first-class association and officially named “China Elevator Association”.
In July 1992, the State Bureau of Technical Supervision approved the establishment of the National Elevator Standardization Technical Committee. In August, the Standards and Ratings Department of the Ministry of Construction held the inaugural meeting of the National Elevator Standardization Technical Committee in Tianjin.
On 5th - 9th January , 1993, Tianjin Otis Elevator Co., Ltd. passed the ISO 9001 quality system certification audit conducted by the Norwegian Classification Society (DNV), becoming the first company in China’s elevator industry to pass the ISO 9000 series quality system certification. As of February 2001, about 50 elevator companies in China have passed the ISO 9000 series quality system certification.
In 1993, Tianjin Otis Elevator Co., Ltd. was awarded the National “New Year” industrial enterprise in 1992 by the State Economic and Trade Commission, the State Planning Commission, the National Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Labor and the Ministry of Personnel. In 1995, the list of new large-scale industrial enterprises nationwide, Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Co., Ltd. was shortlisted for the national “new year” type enterprise.
In October 1994, the Shanghai Oriental Pearl TV Tower, the tallest in Asia and the third tallest in the world, was completed, with a tower height of 468m. The tower is equipped with more than 20 elevators and escalators from Otis, including China’s first double-deck elevator, China’s first round car three-rail sightseeing elevator (rated load 4 000kg) and two 7.00 m/s high speed elevator.
In November 1994, the Ministry of Construction, the State Economic and Trade Commission, and the State Bureau of Technical Supervision jointly issued the Interim Provisions on Strengthening Elevator Management, clearly defining the “one-stop” of elevator manufacturing, installation, and maintenance. Management System.
In 1994, Tianjin Otis Elevator Co., Ltd. took the lead in launching the computer-controlled Otis 24h call service hotline business in China’s elevator industry.
On 1st July, 1995, the 8th National Top Ten Best Joint Venture Awarding Conference hosted by Economic Daily, China Daily and the National Top Ten Best Joint Venture Selection Committee was held in Xi’an. China Schindler Elevator Co., Ltd. has won the honorary title of the top ten best joint ventures (production type) in China for 8 consecutive years. Tianjin Otis Elevator Co., Ltd. also won the honorable title of the 8th National Top Ten Best Joint Venture (Production Type).
In 1995, a new spiral commercial escalator was installed at the New World Commercial Building on Nanjing Road Commercial Street in Shanghai.
On 20th- 24th August , 1996, the 1st China International Elevator Exhibition jointly sponsored by the China Elevator Association and other units was held at the China International Exhibition Center in Beijing. About 150 units from 16 countries abroad participated in the exhibition.
In August 1996, Suzhou Jiangnan Elevator Co., Ltd. exhibited a multi-machine controlled AC variable frequency variable speed multi-slope (wave type) escalator at the 1st China International Elevator Exhibition.
In 1996, Shenyang Special Elevator Factory installed the PLC control tower explosion-proof elevator for the Taiyuan satellite launching base, and also installed the PLC control passenger and cargo tower explosion-proof elevator for the Jiuquan satellite launching base. So far, Shenyang Special Elevator Factory has installed explosion-proof elevators in China’s three major satellite launching bases.
In 1997, following the boom of China’s escalator development in 1991, along with the promulgation of the national new housing reform policy, China’s residential elevators developed a boom.
On 26th January, 1998, the State Economic and Trade Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the State Administration of Taxation, and the General Administration of Customs jointly approved Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Co., Ltd. to establish a state-level enterprise technology center.
On 1st February , 1998, the national standard GB 16899-1997 “Safety Regulations for the Manufacturing and Installation of Escalators and Moving Walkways” was implemented.
On 10th December, 1998, Otis Elevator Company held its opening ceremony in Tianjin, the largest training base in the Asia-Pacific region, Otis China Training Center.
On 23rd October, 1998, Shanghai Mitsubishi Elevator Co., Ltd. obtained the ISO 14001 environmental management system certification issued by Lloyd’s Register of Shipping (LRQA), and became the first company in China’s elevator industry to pass the ISO 14001 environmental management system certification. On November 18, 2000, the company obtained the certificate of OHSAS 18001:1999 issued by the National Occupational Safety and Health Management System Certification Center.
On 28th October, 1998, the Jinmao Tower in Pudong, Shanghai was completed. It is the tallest skyscraper in China and the fourth tallest in the world. The building is 420m high and 88 stories high. Jinmao Tower has 61 elevators and 18 escalators. Two sets of Mitsubishi Electric’s ultra-high-speed elevators with a rated load of 2,500kg and a speed of 9.00m/s are currently the fastest elevators in China.
In 1998, the machine room-less elevator technology began to be favored by elevator companies in China.
On 21st January, 1999, the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision issued the Notice on Doing a Good Job in Safety and Quality Supervision and Supervision of Special Equipments for Elevators and Explosion-Proof Electrical Appliances. The notice pointed out that the safety supervision, supervision and management functions of boilers, pressure vessels and special equipment undertaken by the former Ministry of Labor have been transferred to the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision.
In 1999, Chinese elevator industry companies opened their own homepages on the Internet, using the world’s largest online resources to promote themselves.
In 1999, GB 50096-1999 “Code for Residential Design” stipulated that elevators with a height of more than 16m from the floor of the residential building or the entrance floor of the residential building with a height of more than 16m.
From 29th May to 31st May, 2000, the “China Elevator Industry Regulations and Regulations” (for trial implementation) was passed at the 5th General Assembly of China Elevator Association. The formulation of the line is conducive to the unity and progress of the elevator industry.
By the end of 2000, China’s elevator industry had opened about 800 free service calls for customers such as Shanghai Mitsubishi, Guangzhou Hitachi, Tianjin Otis, Hangzhou Xizi Otis, Guangzhou Otis, Shanghai Otis. The 800 telephone service is also known as the callee centralized payment service.
On 20th September, 2001, with the approval of the Ministry of Personnel, the first post-doctoral research station of China’s elevator industry was held at the R&D Center of Dashi Factory of Guangzhou Hitachi Elevator Co., Ltd.
On 16th -19th October, 2001, the Interlift 2001 German International Elevator Exhibition was held at the Augsburg Exhibition Center. There are 350 exhibitors, and the China Elevator Association delegation has 7 units, the most in history. China’s elevator industry is actively going abroad and participating in international market competition. China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) on December 11, 2001.
In May 2002, the World Natural Heritage Site – Wulingyuan Scenic Spot in Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province installed the world’s highest outdoor elevator and the world’s highest double-decker sightseeing elevator.
Till 2002, China International Elevator Exhibition was held in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2002. The exhibition exchanged elevator technology and market information from all over the world and promoted the development of the elevator industry. At the same time , Chinese elevator is getting more and more trust in the world .
Post time: May-17-2019